Gwalior (gwä´leôr) is an important city and a former princely state located in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Since the 8th century, Gwalior has been a city of immense historical importance. Many mighty Indian rulers patronized its strategic location, each leaving his own indelible mark on the city. The legendry Gwalior Fort, which was described by the Moghul Emperor Babar as "The pearl among the forts of Hind".
It is well connected with all the major cities of India by Road, Train and also with Air.The Gwalior is blessed with Classical Music Maestro Miya Tansen. In memory of him, three days Tansen Samaroh program take place every year and the Classical music stars participate in this programme and entertain the people of Gwalior with their outstanding performance. Also the Gwalior Trade Fair take place every year in the month of December-January.
The state was formed in the mid-18th century by Ranoji Scindia, a Maratha chief who became independent of the Peshwa (hereditary Maratha prime minister). Forces of Gwalior overran much of central India until they were checked by the British in the early 19th cent., and the state was temporarily annexed to the British domain. It was restored to the Scindias in 1886. When India became independent in 1947, Gwalior and several other princely states were combined into the state of Madhya Bharat. In 1956, Madhya Bharat was merged with Madhya Pradesh. The city of Gwalior (1991 population 717,780) was the capital of Gwalior state. It lies at the foot of Gwalior fort, a stronghold on the Rock of Gwalior, a plateau 2 mi (3.2 km) long and 300 ft (91 m) high. Within the battlemented walls of the fort are elaborately carved palaces and temples. Huge Jain reliefs are carved on the cliffs of the Rock of Gwalior.
Among the city's manufactures are textiles, carpets, glass, matches, rayon, porcelain ware, leather and plastic goods, and processed food. There are several colleges, a zoological garden, and an industrial-research laboratory. Gwalior has been successful in establishing itself as the education hub of India. It has Asia's largest physical education institute and two national institutes which are pioneers in their respective fields. In addition to this there are several colleges of national repute.